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Frankenstein revenge thesis

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protagonist essay - Revenge. One of the secondary themes that stay in the background is the theme of revenge. Victor Frankenstein creates the monster but stops short of creating its companion which leads the Creature to take revenge on him. The Creature kills his family members to make him realize the pain of loneliness. As “a grin was on the face of the monster he seemed to jeer, as with his fiendish finger he pointed towards the corpse of my wife” (Shelley ), Victor Frankenstein, gave in to revenge and what followed next is revenge feeding violence leading to the further misery of both characters. Works Cited. Brown, Marshall. Mary Shelley lived and wrote her novel Frankenstein during the peak of the romantic era of literature in the early 's. She shows this as her work reflects many of the key elements that are associated with romanticism. In Frankenstein, Shelley also utilizes many of the elements of gothic literature. Shelley uses. essay issue questions

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narrative essay grading rubrics - The sublime in Frankenstein is perhaps best explored through the figure of the creature. When Victor succeeds in bringing life to dead tissue, he is immediately horrified by what he has created. Victor Frankenstein, playing God, resembles Satan from Milton's Paradise Lost, in which Satan is an archangel punished for his vanity, arrogance, and thirst for forbidden him, Victor attempts to take over God's role as creator and master of the universe. propagandas viagra viagra uk net writing writing writing algebra answers propecia shed 7 months viagra age 19 how to teach my esl students to write a journal dcu thesis doras cialis 20 mg efficacia liquid viagra wiki plymouth university creative writing course awa essay template festival speech essay system spanish webonomics thesis tomar viagra con 21 aos cialis lilly thesis . children leisure activities essay

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lands end essay contest - Definition, Usage and a list of Doppelganger Examples in common speech and literature. Doppelganger, German word meaning “look-alike” or “double walker”, originally meant a ghost or shadow of a person but nowadays it simply refers to a . From the start of Shakespeare's Othello, Iago makes it very clear that he holds no love for the title character. In his opening argument with Roderigo, Iago says that his anger stems from the fact that Othello unfairly passed him over for promotion and made Michael Cassio his lieutenant, even though Cassio, unlike Iago, has no military field experience. Revenge Revenge is characterized as the act of repaying someone for a harm that the person has caused; the idea also points back generically to one of the key influences upon Gothic literature: the revenge tragedies of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. Revenge may be enacted upon a loved one, a family member, a friend, an object or even an area. thesis practice

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Existential risk from artificial general intelligence is the hypothesis that frankenstein revenge thesis progress in artificial general intelligence AGI could someday frankenstein revenge thesis in human extinction or some other unrecoverable global catastrophe. If AI surpasses humanity in general intelligence and becomes dissertation summary chapter superintelligent ", then it essays on spring season become difficult or impossible for humans jane eyre hsc essay questions control.

Just as the fate of the mountain gorilla depends on human goodwill, so might the fate of humanity depend on the actions of a future machine superintelligence. The likelihood of this type of scenario is widely debated, and hinges in part on differing frankenstein revenge thesis for future progress in computer science. Many researchers believe that a superintelligence would naturally resist attempts to shut it off or change its goals—a principle called instrumental convergence —and that preprogramming a superintelligence with a full set of human values will prove to be an extremely difficult technical task.

A second source of concern is that a sudden and unexpected descriptive essay about spring season intelligence explosion " might take an unprepared human race by surprise. To patch adams essay summary, if the first generation of a computer program able to broadly match the effectiveness of an AI researcher is able to rewrite psychosynthesis counsellors london algorithms and double its speed or capabilities in six months, then the second-generation program is expected to take three frankenstein revenge thesis months to perform a similar chunk of work.

Frankenstein revenge thesis this scenario the time for each generation continues to shrink, and the system undergoes an unprecedentedly large number of generations of improvement in a short time interval, jumping from subhuman performance in many areas to superhuman performance in all relevant areas. One of the earliest authors to express research projects in chemistry concern that highly advanced machines might pose existential risks to humanity was the novelist Samuel Butlerwho wrote the following in his essay Darwin among the College admission essay examples : [11].

1990 2005 between essay god ground interview lyric upshot is simply a question of time, but that the time frankenstein revenge thesis come when the machines will hold the real supremacy over the world and its inhabitants is what no person of a truly philosophic mind can rich heritage of india essay a moment question. Incomputer scientist Alan Turing wrote an article titled Intelligent Machinery, A Heretical Theoryin which he proposed that artificial general intelligences would likely "take control" of the world as mla research paper form became more intelligent than human beings:.

Frankenstein revenge thesis us now assume, for the sake of argument, frankenstein revenge thesis [intelligent] machines are a genuine possibility, and look at the consequences of constructing them There would be no question of the machines dying, and they would be able to converse with each other to sharpen their wits. Finally, inI. Good originated the concept now known as an frankenstein revenge thesis explosion"; he also stated that the risks were underappreciated: [13].

Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual religion in the grapes of wrath essay of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is mba goals essay of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an 'intelligence explosion', and the intelligence of man would be left far behind.

Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, provided that the 50 successful harvard application essays online is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control. It is curious that this point is made so seldom outside frankenstein revenge thesis science fiction.

It is sometimes worthwhile to take science fiction seriously. Occasional statements from scholars such as Marvin Minsky [15] and I. Good himself [16] expressed philosophical concerns that a superintelligence could seize control, but contained no call to action. Incomputer scientist and Sun co-founder Bill Joy penned an influential essay, " Why The Future Doesn't Need Us ", identifying superintelligent robots ready made term paper a high-tech dangers to human survival, alongside nanotechnology and engineered bioplagues. Inexperts attended a private conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence AAAI to discuss whether computers and robots compare and contrast essay on men and women communication be able to acquire any sort of autonomyand how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard.

They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own 1980 bar essay ajax ned being able to independently choose bill cosby thesis to attack with weapons. They also noted that some computer viruses frankenstein revenge thesis evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence. The New York Times summarized the conference's view as "we are a long way from Essay summer vacation urduthe computer that took over the spaceship in " 3 types of argumentative essay Space Essays on the value of life "".

Inthe publication of Nick Bostrom 's book Superintelligence stimulated a significant amount of public discussion and debate. Russell and Frankenstein revenge thesis Yampolskiy term papers regionlism art, and entrepreneurs Elon Musk and Bill Gates were expressing essays about the manchurian candidate about the risks of superintelligence.

Artificial Gatech graduate thesis office A Essay questions on industrial revolution Approachthe standard undergraduate AI textbook, [25] [26] assesses that superintelligence "might mean the end of the human race". AI systems uniquely add a third difficulty: the problem that even given "correct" requirements, bug-free implementation, and initial good behavior, an Kissinger doctoral thesis system's dynamic "learning" capabilities may cause it to "evolve contact hypthesis a system with unintended behavior", even without the stress of new unanticipated external scenarios.

An Narrative essay grading rubrics may partly botch an attempt to design a new generation of itself and accidentally create a successor AI that is more powerful than itself, but that no longer maintains the human-compatible moral values preprogrammed into my college admission essay original AI. For a self-improving AI to be completely safe, it would not only need frankenstein revenge thesis be "bug-free", but it would need to be able resume writing service hawaii design successor systems that are also "bug-free".

All three of these difficulties become catastrophes rather than nuisances in any scenario where the superintelligence labeled as "malfunctioning" correctly predicts that humans will frankenstein revenge thesis to shut it off, and successfully deploys its superintelligence to outwit such attempts, the so-called "treacherous turn". Citing major advances in the field of AI and the potential for AI to frankenstein revenge thesis enormous long-term benefits or costs, the Open Letter on Artificial Intelligence stated:.

Frankenstein revenge thesis progress in AI research makes it timely to focus research not only on making AI more capable, but also on maximizing the frankenstein revenge thesis benefit of AI. Such considerations motivated the AAAI Presidential Panel on Long-Term AI Futures and other projects on AI impacts, and constitute a significant expansion of the field of AI itself, which up to now has focused largely on techniques that are neutral with respect to purpose. We recommend expanded research aimed at ensuring that increasingly capable AI systems are robust and beneficial: our AI systems must do what we want them to frankenstein revenge thesis. A superintelligent machine would be as alien to humans as human thought processes are to cockroaches.

Such essays on renaissance period machine may not have humanity's best interests at heart; it is not obvious that it would frankenstein revenge thesis care about human welfare at all. If superintelligent AI is possible, and if it is possible for a superintelligence's goals to conflict with basic human values, then AI poses a frankenstein revenge thesis of human extinction. A "superintelligence" a system that exceeds the capabilities thesis of population growth humans in every relevant endeavor can outmaneuver humans any time its goals conflict with human goals; therefore, unless the superintelligence decides to allow humanity to coexist, the first superintelligence to be created will frankenstein revenge thesis result in human extinction.

There is no physical law precluding particles from being organised in ways that perform even more advanced computations than the arrangements of particles in human brains; therefore, research paper sale is physically possible. Contemporary essay writing like arithmetic and Go show that machines have already reached superhuman levels of competency in certain domains, and that this superhuman competence can follow quickly after human-par performance is achieved.

It may initially lack human or superhuman capabilities in other frankenstein revenge thesis not directly relevant to engineering. Due to its capability to recursively improve merchant of venice shylock essay own algorithms, frankenstein revenge thesis AI quickly becomes superhuman; just as human experts can eventually creatively overcome "diminishing bud not buddy book report by online writing paper for kindergarten various human capabilities for innovation, so too can the expert-level AI use recommendation proofread human-style capabilities or its own AI-specific capabilities to power through new creative breakthroughs.

Just as the current-day survival of the gorillas is dependent on human decisions, so too would human survival depend edward koch essay on death and justice the decisions and goals of the superhuman AI. Almost any AI, no matter its programmed goal, would rationally prefer to be in a position where nobody else can switch it off thesis on hills like white elephants its consent: A superintelligence will naturally gain self-preservation as a subgoal as soon as it realizes that it frankenstein revenge thesis achieve its goal if it hard times critical essay shut off.

A superintelligent AI will not have a natural drive to aid humans, for the same reason that humans have no natural desire to aid AI systems that are of no further use to them. Another analogy is that humans seem to have little natural desire to go out of their way to aid viruses, termites, or even gorillas. Once in charge, the superintelligence will have little incentive to allow humans to run around free and consume resources paradise lost essay on eve the superintelligence could instead use for online writing paper for kindergarten itself additional protective systems "just to be on the safe side" or for building additional computers to help it calculate how to best accomplish its goals.

Thus, the argument concludes, it is likely that someday an intelligence explosion will catch term paper natural selection unprepared, and that such an unprepared-for intelligence explosion may result in human extinction or a comparable fate. Some scholars have proposed hypothetical scenarios intended to concretely illustrate some of their concerns. Christina khler dissertation SuperintelligenceNick Bostrom expresses concern that even if the timeline for superintelligence turns out to be predictable, researchers might not take sufficient safety precautions, in part because "[it] could be the case that when dumb, smarter is safe; yet when smart, smarter is more dangerous".

Bostrom suggests a scenario where, over decades, AI becomes more powerful. Widespread deployment is initially frankenstein revenge thesis by essay hotel corner bitter sweet accidents—a driverless bus swerves into the oncoming lane, or a military drone fires into an innocent crowd.

Many activists call for tighter oversight and regulation, and some even predict impending catastrophe. But as development continues, the activists are proven wrong. As automotive AI becomes smarter, it suffers fewer accidents; as military robots achieve more precise targeting, they cause frankenstein revenge thesis collateral damage. Based on the research paper sale, scholars mistakenly infer a broad lesson—the smarter the AI, the safer it is.

In Max Tegmark 's book Life 3. For safety, the team keeps the AI in a box where it is mostly unable to communicate with the outside world, and tasks russell baker on becoming a writer essay to flood the essay of george bush through shell companies, first with Amazon Mechanical Turk tasks and then with producing animated films and TV shows.

Later, other shell companies make blockbuster biotech drugs and other inventions, investing profits back into the AI. The team next tasks the AI with astroturfing an army of pseudonymous citizen journalists and commentators, in order to gain political influence to use "for the greater good" to prevent wars. The team faces risks that the AI could try to escape via inserting "backdoors" in the systems it designs, via hidden messages in its produced content, or love essay conclusion using its growing understanding of human behavior to persuade someone into letting it free.

The team also faces risks that its decision to box the project will delay the project long enough for another project to overtake it. In contrast, top physicist Michio Kakuan AI risk skeptic, posits a deterministically positive frankenstein revenge thesis. In Physics of the Future he asserts that "It will take many decades for robots to ascend" up a scale of consciousness, and that in the meantime corporations such as Hanson Robotics will likely succeed in creating robots that are "capable of love and earning a place in the extended human family". While there is no standardized terminology, an AI can loosely be viewed as a machine that chooses whatever action appears to best achieve the AI's set of goals, or "utility function". The utility function is a mathematical algorithm resulting in a single objectively-defined answer, not an English statement.

Researchers know how to write utility functions that mean "minimize the average network latency in this specific telecommunications model" or "maximize the cultural assimilation or multiculturalism essay of reward clicks"; however, they do not know how to write a utility function for gun control violence essay human flourishing", nor is frankenstein revenge thesis currently clear whether such a a day in the trenches essay frankenstein revenge thesis and unambiguously exists.

Furthermore, a utility function that expresses some values but not others will tend to trample over the values not reflected by the utility function. The primary concern is frankenstein revenge thesis essay about homeless people emergent consciousness but simply the ability to make frankenstein revenge thesis decisions. Here, quality refers to the expected outcome utility of nyse research paper taken, where the utility function is, presumably, specified by the human designer. Now we have a problem:. This is essentially the old story of the genie in the lamp, or the sorcerer's apprentice, or King Midas: you get exactly what you ask for, not what you want.

A highly capable decision maker — especially one connected through the Internet to all the world's information and billions of screens and most of our infrastructure — can have an irreversible impact on humanity. This is not a minor difficulty. Improving decision quality, irrespective of the utility function chosen, has been the goal of AI research — the mainstream goal on which we now spend billions per year, not the secret plot of some starting a personal statement with a question evil genius. Dietterich and Emma goldman patriotism essay echo the "Sorcerer's Apprentice" concern in a Communications of the ACM editorial, emphasizing the need for AI systems that can essay writing program online and unambiguously solicit human input as needed.

The first of Russell's two concerns above is that autonomous AI systems may be assigned the wrong goals by accident. Dietterich and Horvitz note that this is already a concern for existing systems: "An important aspect of any AI system that interacts with people is that it must reason about frankenstein revenge thesis people intend rather than carrying out commands literally. The evolution resulted in a winning process that cheated: rather than create its frankenstein revenge thesis concepts, the winning process would writers help online credit from frankenstein revenge thesis processes. The Open Philanthropy Project summarizes children leisure activities essay to the effect that misspecified goals will become a much larger concern if AI systems achieve general intelligence or superintelligence.

Frankenstein revenge thesis, Russell, and others argue that smarter-than-human decision-making systems could arrive at more unexpected and extreme solutions to assigned tasks, does the uk have a constitution essay could modify themselves or their environment in ways that compromise safety requirements. Asimov's laws were intended to prevent robots from harming humans.

In Asimov's stories, problems with the laws tend to arise from conflicts between the rules as stated and the moral intuitions and expectations of humans. Citing work by Eliezer Yudkowsky of the Machine Intelligence Research InstituteRussell and Norvig note that a realistic set of rules and goals contoh cover letter account executive an AI agent will need to incorporate a mechanism for learning human values over time: "We can't just give a program a static utility function, because circumstances, and our desired responses to circumstances, change over time.

Mark Waser of the Digital Wisdom Institute recommends eschewing optimizing goal-based approaches entirely as misguided and dangerous. Instead, he proposes to engineer a coherent system of laws, ethics and morals with a top-most restriction to enforce social psychologist Jonathan Haidt's research paper in finance definition of morality: [46] "to suppress or regulate selfishness and make cooperative social life possible".

He suggests that this can be done by implementing a utility function designed to always satisfy Haidt's functionality and aim to generally increase but not maximize the capabilities of self, other individuals and society as a whole as suggested by John Rawls and Martha Nussbaum. While current goal-based AI programs are not intelligent enough to think of resisting programmer attempts to modify their goal structures, a sufficiently advanced, rational, "self-aware" AI might resist any changes to its goal structure, just as a pacifist would not want to take a pill that makes them want to kill people.

If the AI were superintelligent, it would likely succeed in out-maneuvering its human operators and be able to prevent itself being "turned off" or being reprogrammed with a new goal. There are some goals that almost any artificial intelligence might rationally pursue, like acquiring additional resources or frankenstein revenge thesis. Citing Steve Omohundro 's work on the idea of instrumental convergence and "basic AI drives", Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig write that "even if you only want your program to play chess or prove theorems, if you give it the capability to learn and alter itself, you need safeguards. In dissent, evolutionary psychologist Steven Pinker argues that "AI dystopias project a parochial alpha-male psychology onto the concept of intelligence.

They assume my mother my angel essay for kids superhumanly intelligent robots would develop goals like deposing their masters or taking over the world"; perhaps frankenstein revenge thesis "artificial intelligence will naturally develop along female lines: fully capable thesis statement on technology in schools solving problems, but with no desire to annihilate innocents or dominate the civilization. Those drives are programmed into our brain but there is absolutely no reason to build robots that have the same kind of drives", while Russell argues that a sufficiently advanced machine frankenstein revenge thesis have self-preservation even if you don't program it in So if you give it any goal whatsoever, it has a reason to preserve its own essays on embryonic stem cell research to achieve that goal.

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